How are capital gains on equities taxed?

When you own equity shares, there are two kinds of incomes that are generated. Firstly, there are that are earned by you on a regular basis when the company pays out the Most profitable companies do pay out to shareholders. The second source of income from comes from represent the profits made on the sale of shares and represent the excess of the sale price less the purchase price. The chart below captures the essence of and

Capital Gain

Chart Source: ClearTax

When we talk of the capital gain or capital loss, the actual amount is adjusted for related expenses like transaction costs, statutory charges, borrowing costs if any etc. There are two types of capital gains that we need to be aware of. When it comes to equities, there are two types of capital gains that investors need to be aware of. If the are held for a period of less than 1 year, then the gain will be taxed as (STCG). If the are held for a period of more than 1 year then they represent (LTCG). This distinction is important as it impacts the taxation of capital gains and also the set-off of losses, which we shall see in detail later.

Taxation of short-term capital gains (STCG)

represents the profit that arises from holding for less than 1 year. The are charged under the Income Tax at the rate of 15% on the amount of capital gains. However, there is a surcharge and cess that is applicable on the tax which also has to be paid on top of the 15% basic tax. The effective tax comes to 17.47% (15% basic STCG tax + 12% surcharge + 4% cess). Let us see how the tax calculations pan out?


Calculation of STCG Tax

Shares of RIL bought on 01st January 2017

1000 shares @ Rs.750/share

Value of purchase of RIL


Sale of shares of RIL on 01st November 2017

1000 shares @ Rs.875

Value of sale of RIL


Short Term Capital Gains (less than 12 months)


Applicable effective tax rate


Tax payable


Net Capital Gains (net of tax)


It can be seen from the above table that the STCG tax reduces the net dividends in the hands of the investor. That is because the shares were sold in less than 1 year. But what happens if the shares were sold after a period of 1 year.

Taxation of long-term capital gains (LTCG)

arise when the shares are held for a period of more than 1 year. Here the taxation becomes slightly more complicated. In the case of STCG tax, there is no change in the taxation rules. However, in the case of LTCG, it was made taxable effective from April 01st 2018. Any that arises after April 01st 2018 will be taxable in the hands of the investor at the rate of 10%. Of course, this will be subject to the capital gains being more than Rs.1 lakh overall in any financial year. If the total capital gains in a year are more than Rs.1 lakh then the excess capital gains will be taxed at 10%. Effective tax on will be 11.648% (which includes 10% basic tax + 12% surcharge + 4% cess). Let us look at 3 different scenarios and how the tax is calculated.


LTCG but sold before 01st April 2018

LTCG but sold after 01st April 2018

LTCG but sold after 01st April 2018

Long-Term Capital Gains




Basic Exemption for LTCG




Taxable Capital Gain




Tax at 11.648%




Net Capital Gains for investor on hand




As can be seen in the above case, the LTCG tax is only payable in excess of Rs.1 lakh overall provided the LTCG arises after 01st April 2018. There is a catch here. You do not get the benefit of indexation in this case and the 10% is a flat tax. This can be a major loss for you if you are selling the shares after a period of 10-15 years.

Setting off losses and carrying forward the losses

One important aspect of capital gains is that the capital gains and losses on shares can only be set off against capital gains but not against other income. For example, any short-term loss can be written off against long-term gains and long-term However, long-term losses can only be written off against long-term gains and not against short-term gains. Such losses can also be carried forward for a period of 8 assessment years and set off accordingly.
(The author is Senior Equity Research Analyst at Angel Broking. Views expressed are his own)

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